A readily measurable aspect of globalization is the increasing exchange of capital, products and services across national boundaries, spurred by expanded use of container shipping and other technological improvements as well as falling barrier. The interdependence is most apparent with global supply chains, as manufactured goods like vehicles and electronics are assembled with components produced around the world, and it’s increasingly rare for any country to be the sole source of any one complex product. Countries aim to increase exports but worry about too many imports and trade imbalances, even as their consumers pursue low prices. Disagreements on subsidies, tariffs, quotas or unfair practices are debated by the World Trade Organization.

Recently in YaleGlobal

Humphrey Hawksley
, 5 November 2015
Melting Arctic ice revives trade hopes and defense worries along non-hostile border between the US and Russia
Shuaihua Wallace Cheng
, 22 October 2015
Transpacific Partnership boosts UN Sustainable Development Goals in some ways and undermines them in others
Debalina Ghoshal
, 1 October 2015
Open for trade, Iran may test two rivalries – its own with Saudi Arabia, another between Pakistan and India
Jamsheed K. Choksy and Carol E. B. Choksy
, 17 September 2015
Trade delegations rush to Iran; if its nuclear ambitions are not contained, restoring sanctions won't be easy
Farok J. Contractor
, 10 September 2015
The Chinese prefer investing overseas; dummy companies may ease transfers and devalue renminbi
Dilip Hiro
, 21 July 2015
With strong ties to Pakistan, China extends economic and strategic influence over the Indian Ocean region

In the News

Laura McKenna
The Atlantic
, 27 November 2015
US public and private colleges attracted near 1 million international students for 2014-15
Trefor Moss
The Wall Street Journal
, 19 November 2015
Fast settlement of claims could allow Asia Pacific leaders to focus on other pressing issues
William Mauldin
The Wall Street Journal
, 13 November 2015
China, the European Union and the United States are among the biggest targets
Jorge Guajardo
Zócalo Public Square
, 5 November 2015
Political and economic transformations lead to social change
Joe Deaux
, 4 November 2015
Alcoa cuts back on making and refining aluminum
Chuin-Wei Yap
The Wall Street Journal
, 30 October 2015
A variety of schemes bypass government restrictions on fund transfers outside the country

More On Trade

Foreign tech investors are cautious on entering India until reforms are imposed
Nations should end the Doha Round, yet pursue new routes of cooperation on hyperglobalization and big regional trade agreements – or the benefits of open markets could go into reverse